We wanted to expand from the analysis of the anti-shale gas mobilization by focusing more on the proshale front, following the Jacob law vote.
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We highlighted the arenas where this controversy has been debated and how those arenas and the debating actors reconfigured the interpretation of this public issue. We wanted to analyze in detail this framing process with particular emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technical dimensions of the tools used in such operation.
This article examines the promise of market democratization conveyed by consumer rating and review websites in the restaurant industry. Based on interviews with website administrators and data from the main French platforms, we show that review websites contribute to the democratization of critique, which first started in the s, both by including a large part of the restaurant supply within the reviewing perimeter, and by broadening participation, opening restaurant reviewing to all.
However this twofold democratic ambition conflicts with the need to produce fair and helpful recommendations, leading review websites to find compromises between these two dimensions. We presently witness a profound transformation of the configuration of biomedical practices, as characterized by an increasingly collective dimension, and by a growing reliance on disruptive technologies that generate large amounts of data. We also witness a proliferation of biomedical databases, often freely accessible on the Web, which can be easily analyzed thanks to network analysis software. In particular, we examine a number of shortcomings of the notion of networks, namely those concerning: a the relation between agency and structural analysis; b the distinction between network clusters and collectives; c the ac counting strategies that fuel the networking approach; and d the privileged status ascribed to textual documents.
In this paper we examine the innovation performance of hybrid alliances, that is, alliances that combine exploration and exploitation activities. While previous research has emphasized the tensions engendered by the combination of exploration and exploitation, we claim that the integration of these two types of activities can generate synergies as well.
We argue that, in the case of alliances involving academic spin-offs ASOs , these synergies may outweigh the tensions under specific conditions, and thus improve alliance innovation performance. Specifically, we hypothesize that the relative performance of exploitation activities is greater in hybrid alliances when the alliance has radical innovation outcomes. Conversely, the relative performance of exploration activities is greater in hybrid alliances when the alliance has incremental innovation outcomes.
These hypotheses are tested using fine-grained data on a sample of alliances involving European ASOs.
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EthnographieAbstractThis article explores the role of the production and circulation of maintenance records as a written aspectof the collective re-ordering process. Each record produces a normative description of the world: anaccurate representation of the problem situation which, at the same time, steers and frames the successive stages of the operation it initiates.
It therefore plays a role in both the sequential organization of maintenanceoperations and reducing gaps between the world as it is and the world as it should be. Urban inscriptions are performative devices that play a crucial part in urban assemblages. They mark sites, give places a name, designate directions. This paper questions such performativity by investigating the design and maintenance of subway signs in Paris.
Studying backstage activities rather than user tactics, it shows that the semiotic production of space is mainly played out in standardization processes that are both oriented towards signs immutability and fueled by a daily consideration for their vulnerability. Such a posture allows us to take full account of the ontological variations of signs which can be, for example, stable or unstable, consistent or fragile, immutable or mutable.
Maintenance work, through which the agency of urban inscriptions is partially shaped, ensures the articulation of such a multiplicity. It derives the value of a good from the cash flows that this good will produce in the future, reducing them by a factor that is all the higher as they are distant in time.
This paper examines the foundations of the DCF formula and identifies three different configurations — ensembles of problems, actors and objects — in its development. The paper sheds light on the role played by the state, economists and consultants in the constitution of this formula as the main tool for assessing investments. This paper studies the new venture formation process, and thus aims at improving our understanding of how markets and the economy are constantly being re-populated with new business entities. It does so by empirically analyzing the ways in which business plans contribute to the formation of new firms, and to the shape of these new firms, based on the telling cases of three French academic spin-offs.
Business plans, it is shown, participate in business formation by playing a major part, as inscriptions, in the textual and visual formulation of the new firms, on paper and beyond.
Four different types of formulation are identified that coexist and complement each other within every plan. The second formulation is an organizational one, which puts forward the specific combination of resources, e. The third formulation is a financial one, which puts together the new firm as a worthy investment. The fourth formulation is a legal one, which relies on contracts, e. Further, it argues that the business plan as a whole, which articulates these four formulas, is also best described as a formula: a hybrid yet standardized entrepreneurial formula, which shapes and thus restricts the types of new businesses entrepreneurs are encouraged to carry out.
This approach refreshes the study of entrepreneurship by focusing on entrepreneurial work, methods and tools. In studying how business formation derives from the formulation of new firms, it also constitutes a careful and original development in the analysis of the performative power of accounting.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD is an unsettled condition whose history is characterised by controversy among medical professionals. We show how, in Ireland, organisations remain committed to a biomedical approach to ADHD, although their practical efforts are oriented towards complementing medication with nonpharmaceutical treatments. The thesis explores the components of concerted action at an international scale by focusing on how the problem of CO2 emissions attributed to tropical deforestation is handled in climate change negotiations.
The constraint faced by actors is as follows: interventions led by a diversity of actors across the world need to be coordinated, in the pursuit of an objective agreed by all states represented at the United Nations whose sovereignty must be respected. Such process builds on operations that can be analyzed from the viewpoint of carbon geopolitics. Some of these operations are related to the spatial extension and the liberal and quantified dimensions of the enterprise. Decision-making at an international level must be organized, comparable carbon measurement methods must be created and incentive-based redistribution systems must be designed.
Other operations are specific to the entities concerned by the treated phenomenon, so-called developing countries. The weakness of their technical equipment must be acknowledged, so-called bad governance in their administrations must be dealt with and their civil society must be listened to. The approach developed here is grounded in science and technology studies, a domain that has recently focused on the construction of markets and decision-making. It proposes to call international adjustment the tentative and fragile process through which the interest for climate protection of an international collective is maintained.
The article examines the phenomenon of so-called civic apps, applications for smartphones and web largely used by Russian social movements in their fight against corruption, roads in poor condition, street faults and other public problems. Developed by independent programmers and anti-Putin activists, these applications become a means of collective action and empowerment, redefining traditional repertoires of contention.
They help citizens participate in public life by mapping, documenting and photographing different urban problems and hence enable citizen expertise and facilitate citizen control. The aim of this article is thus to understand how such small-scaled actions as pothole reporting or mapping street faults can become a means of empowerment and counter-democracy tools. The article is based on two years of field research and focuses on four cases of civic applications. Analyzing technical aspects, the genesis and design of these apps, the author provides an account of new repertoires of contention and new forms of citizenship created with the help of these tools.
Les internautes sont-ils des hommes gouvernables?firm.mccurdycandler.com/105.php
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The main purpose of this thesis is to produce an empirical account of the creation of this new law an instrument of public action as an experience of internet governance and internauts. While it is a somewhat minor public issue, illegal downloading creates a myriad of issues across the framework of public action, historically recognised as literary and artistic property rights.
The political effects of the digital age, deterritorialised consequences of globalisation, liberalism and technology necessitate a rethinking of the relationship between sovereignty and discipline. The gridlock between DRM; supranational norms; the hijacking of content by users; the collective power of rights holders; the unalterable nature of intellectual property and the militants for free access to culture; the public authorities had to invent and innovate an instrument of public action.
The goal of which is to extend an added value of the French nation state: the defense of the cultural exception. Are internauts governable? In constructing a representation of the internet user, through promoting obedience, and by modifying behaviour through incremental incitation from being informed to being penalised and by producing as much unwanted behaviour, the HADOPI has effected the political result of inaugurating the first ever attempt albeit fragile, yet pioneering to govern the internet and internauts. What kind of controversies do they produce and what feedback effect do these controversies have on these instruments?
These are the questions I propose to answer in this PhD dissertation by analysing the genealogy, the uses and the transformations of several policy devices: information system, cost accounting, budgetary regulation instrument and pricing payment system.
Combining a sociology of policy instruments and science and technology studies, these devices are analysed in the multiple sites where they spread: ministry of Health, public agency, research centres in management studies, hospital federations, patients organizations and public hospitals. The dissertation exposes how these devices have turned public hospitals into accounting and financial entities. I specially focus on the pricing payment system called T2A which is analysed as a qualculation instrument as it qualifies and quantifies patients, stays in hospitals, diseases, and public hospital itself.
The dissertation shows how this qualculation process produces metrological controversies in which actors put into question the way things are qualculated. Patient Organizations and Prospective Payment System in France: A case of managerial activism Many scholars have described the capacity of patient organizations to produce and acquire a form of lay expertise to confront and in some cases, partner with medical knowledge.
While this learning process has been crucial for the empowerment of these patient organizations, another kind of activism seems to emerge. Recently, the association Vaincre la mucoviscidose has decided to enrol experts to put into question the pricing of the cure for cystic fibrosis. This paper analyses how this critique has been rendered possible and in which way it implies a new kind of participation of patient organizations to health policies.
The sustainability of biofuels has been the subject of heated debates in Europe. These criteria, relating to the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the types of land used to produce biofuels, are expected to be implemented through certification schemes associating private companies and public bodies whether national or European. Using recent works in the sociology of markets, I consider these sustainability schemes as agencements, a lens for the study of the construction of a market in sustainable biofuels and for the analysis of European integration.
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I focus on the mass balance system, which, meant to track the circulation of biofuels qualified as sustainable, is a compromise, implemented at the price of pervasive uncertainties and difficulties. The European political and economic organisation is at stake in discussions related to the extent of the control exercised through the sustainability schemes by virtue of the mass balance system, and a politics of subsidiarity and a politics of harmonisation are at the heart of the making of a European market for sustainable biofuels.
The description of the agencements organising European markets in sustainable biofuels points to the importance of coexistence as an economic and political operation. La standardisation et l'expertise internationale dans le domaine des nanotechnologies montrent l'importance des instruments.
Based on a sociology of science approach, it investigates the relations between technologies, the theoretical perspectives that have described their engagement in productive systems and the social scientists who have studied them. The decentralized electronic currency system Bitcoin gives the possibility to execute transactions via direct communication between users, without the need to resort to third parties entrusted with legitimizing the concerned monetary value.
In its current state of development - a recent, fast-changing, volatile and highly mediatized technology - the discourses that unfold within spaces of information and discussion related to Bitcoin can be analysed in light of their ability to produce at once the representations of value, the practices according to which it is transformed and evolves, and the devices allowing for its implementation.
The literature on the system is a testament to how the Bitcoin debates do not merely spread, communicate and diffuse representation of this currency, but are closely intertwined with the practice of the money itself. By focusing its attention on a specific corpus, that of expert discourse, the article shows how, introducing and discussing a specific device, dynamic or operation as being in some way related to trust, this expert knowledge contributes to the very definition and shaping of this trust within the Bitcoin system - ultimately contributing to perform the shared definition of its value as a currency.
- Davey and the Meteorite (Book One in the Davey Gleason Series);
- Le Comte de Monte-Cristo/Texte entier?
- Trilogía Cincuenta sombras (Spanish Edition).
- Heterodoxy, Spinozism, and Free Thought in Early-Eighteenth-Century Europe;
The text shows the way environmental groups have made common cause with local Kanak people to protest against the mining project Goro Nickel.