In Hogarth prepared twelve large engravings illustrating Samuel Butler 's Hudibras. In the following years he turned his attention to the production of small " conversation pieces " i. Among his efforts in oil between and were The Fountaine Family c. This print gave great offence, and was suppressed. However, modern authorities such as Ronald Paulson no longer attribute it to Hogarth. In Hogarth completed the earliest of his series of moral works, a body of work that led to significant recognition. The collection of six scenes was entitled A Harlot's Progress and appeared first as paintings now lost  before being published as engravings.
The inaugural series was an immediate success and was followed in — by the sequel A Rake's Progress. When the success of A Harlot's Progress and A Rake's Progress resulted in numerous pirated reproductions by unscrupulous printsellers, Hogarth lobbied in parliament for greater legal control over the reproduction of his and other artists' work. The result was the Engravers' Copyright Act known as 'Hogarth's Act' , which became law on 25 June and was the first copyright law to deal with visual works as well as the first to recognize the authorial rights of an individual artist.
In —, Hogarth painted the six pictures of Marriage Marriage A-la-Mode National Gallery, London ,  a pointed skewering of upper-class 18th-century society.
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This moralistic warning shows the miserable tragedy of an ill-considered marriage for money. This is regarded by many as his finest project and may be among his best-planned story serials. Marital ethics were the topic of much debate in 18th-century Britain. The many marriages of convenience and their attendant unhappiness came in for particular criticism, with a variety of authors taking the view that love was a much sounder basis for marriage.
Hogarth here painted a satire — a genre that by definition has a moral point to convey — of a conventional marriage within the English upper class. All the paintings were engraved and the series achieved wide circulation in print form. The series, which is set in a Classical interior, shows the story of the fashionable marriage of Viscount Squanderfield, the son of bankrupt Earl Squander, to the daughter of a wealthy but miserly city merchant, starting with the signing of a marriage contract at the Earl's mansion and ending with the murder of the son by his wife's lover and the suicide of the daughter after her lover is hanged at Tyburn for murdering her husband.
William Makepeace Thackeray wrote:. This famous set of pictures contains the most important and highly wrought of the Hogarth comedies. The care and method with which the moral grounds of these pictures are laid is as remarkable as the wit and skill of the observing and dexterous artist. He has to describe the negotiations for a marriage pending between the daughter of a rich citizen Alderman and young Lord Viscount Squanderfield, the dissipated son of a gouty old Earl The dismal end is known.
My lord draws upon the counselor, who kills him, and is apprehended while endeavouring to escape. My lady goes back perforce to the Alderman of the City, and faints upon reading Counsellor Silvertongue's dying speech at Tyburn place of execution in old London , where the counselor has been 'executed for sending his lordship out of the world. In the twelve prints of Industry and Idleness  Hogarth shows the progression in the lives of two apprentices, one of whom is dedicated and hard working, while the other, who is idle, commits crime and is eventually executed.
This shows the work ethic of Protestant England, where those who worked hard were rewarded, such as the industrious apprentice who becomes Sheriff plate 8 , Alderman plate 10 , and finally the Lord Mayor of London in the last plate in the series. The idle apprentice, who begins "at play in the church yard" plate 3 , holes up "in a Garrett with a Common Prostitute" after turning highwayman plate 7 and "executed at Tyburn" plate The idle apprentice is sent to the gallows by the industrious apprentice himself.
For each plate, there is at least one passage from the Bible at the bottom, most from the Book of Proverbs , such as for the first plate of "Industry and Idleness, shown here, "Proverbs Ch Ver:4 The hand of the diligent maketh rich. Later prints of significance include his pictorial warning of the consequences of alcoholism in Beer Street and Gin Lane The woman at the front of Gin Lane , who lets her baby fall to its death, echoes the tale of Judith Dufour, who strangled her baby so she could sell its clothes for gin money.
Other prints were his outcry against inhumanity in The Four Stages of Cruelty published 21 February ,  in which Hogarth depicts the cruel treatment of animals which he saw around him and suggests what will happen to people who carry on in this manner. In the first picture there are scenes of torture of dogs, cats and other animals. The second shows one of the characters from the first painting, Tom Nero, has now become a coach driver, and his cruelty to his horse has caused it to break its leg.
In the third painting Tom is shown as a murderer, with the woman he killed lying on the ground, while in the fourth, titled Reward of Cruelty , the murderer is shown being dissected by scientists after his execution. The method of execution, and the dissection, reflect the Act of Parliament allowing for the dissection of executed criminals who had been convicted for murder.
Hogarth was also a popular portrait painter. There are also portraits of his wife and his two sisters, and of many other people, among them Bishop Hoadly and Bishop Herring. For a long period of his life, Hogarth tried to achieve the status of history painter , but had no great success in this field. Mary Redcliffe , Bristol — The Gate of Calais ; now in Tate Britain was produced soon after his return from a visit to France. He was seized and carried to the governor, where he was forced to prove his vocation by producing several caricatures of the French; particularly a scene of the shore, with an immense piece of beef landing for the Lion d'argent , the English inn at Calais, and several hungry friars following it.
They were much diverted with his drawings, and dismissed him. Back home, he immediately executed a painting of the subject in which he unkindly represented his enemies, the Frenchmen , as cringing, emaciated and superstitious people, while an enormous sirloin of beef arrives, destined for the English inn as a symbol of British prosperity and superiority. He claimed to have painted himself into the picture in the left corner sketching the gate, with a "soldier's hand upon my shoulder", running him in.
In Hogarth painted a self-portrait with his pug dog Trump now also in Tate Britain , which shows him as a learned artist supported by volumes of Shakespeare , Milton and Swift. Others works included his ingenious Satire on False Perspective ;  his satire on canvassing in his Election series —; now in Sir John Soane's Museum ;  his ridicule of the English passion for cockfighting in The Cockpit ; his attack on Methodism in Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism ; his political anti-war satire in The Times , plate I ; and his pessimistic view of all things in Tailpiece, or The Bathos Hogarth wrote and published his ideas of artistic design in his book The Analysis of Beauty Hogarth lived in an age when artwork became increasingly commercialized, being viewed in shop windows, taverns , and public buildings, and sold in printshops.
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Old hierarchies broke down, and new forms began to flourish: the ballad opera , the bourgeois tragedy , and especially, a new form of fiction called the novel with which authors such as Henry Fielding had great success. Therefore, by that time, Hogarth hit on a new idea: "painting and engraving modern moral subjects He drew from the highly moralizing Protestant tradition of Dutch genre painting , and the very vigorous satirical traditions of the English broadsheet and other types of popular print.
In England the fine arts had little comedy in them before Hogarth. His prints were expensive, and remained so until early 19th-century reprints brought them to a wider audience. According to Paulson, Hogarth is subverting the religious establishment and the orthodox belief in an immanent God who intervenes in the lives of people and produces miracles.
Indeed, Hogarth was a Deist , a believer in a God who created the universe but takes no direct hand in the lives of his creations. Thus, as a "comic history painter", he often poked fun at the old-fashioned, "beaten" subjects of religious art in his paintings and prints. Hogarth also rejected Lord Shaftesbury 's then-current ideal of the classical Greek male in favour of the living, breathing female.
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He said, "Who but a bigot, even to the antiques , will say that he has not seen faces and necks, hands and arms in living women, that even the Grecian Venus doth but coarsely imitate. Freemasonry was a theme in some of Hogarth's work, most notably 'Night', the fourth in the quartet of paintings later released as engravings collectively entitled the Four Times of the Day. His main home was in Leicester Square then known as Leicester Fields , but he bought a country retreat in Chiswick in , the house now known as Hogarth's House and preserved as a museum, and spent time there for the rest of his life.
He was a founding Governor of the Foundling Hospital. Among his friends and acquaintances were many English artists and satirists of the period, such as Francis Hayman , Henry Fielding , and Laurence Sterne. Hogarth died in London on 26 October and was buried at St.
Nicholas Church, Chiswick , London. Hogarth's works were a direct influence on John Collier , who was known as the "Lancashire Hogarth". He also influenced many caricaturists of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Hogarth's influence lives on today as artists continue to draw inspiration from his work. Hogarth's paintings and prints have provided the subject matter for several other works. For example, Gavin Gordon 's ballet The Rake's Progress , to choreography by Ninette de Valois , was based directly on Hogarth's series of paintings of that title.
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Auden , was less literally inspired by the same series. Russell Banks ' short story "Indisposed" is a fictional account of Hogarth's infidelity as told from the viewpoint of his wife, Jane. Hogarth's House in Chiswick , west London, is now a museum; the major road junction next to it is named the Hogarth Roundabout.
In both Hogarth's House and the Foundling Museum held special exhibitions to mark the th anniversary of his death. Before , After , Women pushed squeegees through the remaining puddles, and washed clothes in plastic tubs with cold water that quickly turned brown.
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A younger one shinnied up a foot light pole to pirate electricity. But Mr. Its task is particularly complex given the delicate balance in its population of six million, which is dominated by Palestinian refugees and their descendants and includes hundreds of thousands who fled the war in Iraq. Zaatari is only the most visible challenge. Some relief is coming. Harper said he had met with envoys from Qatar and the Emirates. Harper said. Not soon enough for Iman Qardah, 30, who has been in the camp for 10 weeks with her five children, ages 1 to When the storm struck last week, her husband spent the night hammering the stakes of the tent as the wind threatened to rip it from the ground.
The next night, rain seeped inside, so the family slept piled on one side. The family moved to a prefab that is perhaps 10 feet by 20 feet. But they leak, too. On Friday, the children huddled for warmth around a gas burner where Ms. Qardah was simmering cauliflower and rice, as a bucket nearby caught drops from the ceiling.
A neighbor poked a head in, wondering jealously how she had procured a space heater. Qardah said as she nursed the baby.
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The camp is rife with complaints. Skimpy food rations, scarce clothes. Spotty electricity, rare hot water, squalid toilets. Suspicions that aid workers are stealing blankets. Nothing to do, no prospects for getting out. But given the weather and the continued flood of refugees — about 10, had arrived in the camp in the past 10 days — it is remarkable things are not much, much worse. Officials said there had been no casualties from the cold.
There was also a stillbirth and a premature baby who died after three days in an incubator. Anne, the doctor at the French military clinic here, which requires personnel to be identified only by first name, said she had seen a slight uptick in sore throats and ears since the storm, but no frostbite.